- Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Gastronomy, XaRTA, INSA, School of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Avinguda Prat de la Riba, 171; E-08921 Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain.
- IRTA-Food Safety Programme, Institute for Food and Agricultural Research and Technology, Finca Camps i Armet s/n, E-17121 Monells, Spain.
- Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Gastronomy, XaRTA, INSA, School of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Avinguda Prat de la Riba, 171; E-08921 Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tyramine and histamine are the main dietary bioactive amines related to acute adverse health effects. Dry fermented sausages can easily accumulate high levels of these hazards and are frequently consumed in Spain. The present work aims to assess the exposure to tyramine and histamine from the consumption of dry fermented sausages by the Spanish population and to assess the risk to suffer acute health effects from this exposure. A probabilistic estimation of the exposure to these hazards was derived combining probability distributions of these amines in dry fermented sausages (n = 474) and their consumption by the Spanish population. The mean dietary exposure to tyramine and histamine was 6.2 and 1.39 mg/meal, respectively. The risk of suffering hypertensive crisis or histamine intoxication by healthy population due to tyramine or histamine intake, respectively, exclusively from dry fermented sausages, can be considered negligible. For individuals under treatment with MAOI drugs, the probability to surpass the safe threshold dose (6 mg/meal) was estimated as 34%. For patients with histamine intolerance, even the presence of this amine in food is not tolerable and it could be estimated that 7000 individuals per million could be at risk to suffer the related symptoms after consuming dry fermented sausages.
Bioactive amines; Dry fermented sausages; Histamine; Histamine intolerance; Risk assessment; Tyramine