Nutrients 2021, 13, 1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041262
Wolfgang J. Schnedl 1,* and Dietmar Enko 2
1 General Internal Medicine Practice, Dr. Theodor Körnerstrasse 19b, A-8600 Bruck, Austria
2 Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz,
Auenbruggerplatz 15, A-8036 Graz, Austria; email@example.com
- Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel.: +43-3612-55833; Fax: +43-3612-55833-22
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Histamine intolerance (HIT) is assumed to be due to a deficiency of the gastrointestinal (GI) enzyme diamine oxidase (DAO) and, therefore, the food component histamine not being degraded and/or absorbed properly within the GI tract. Involvement of the GI mucosa in various disorders and diseases, several with unknown origin, and the effects of some medications seem to reduce gastrointestinal DAO activity. HIT causes variable, functional, nonspecific, non-allergic GI and extra-intestinal complaints. Usually, evaluation for HIT is not included in differential diagnoses of patients with unexplained, functional GI complaints or in the here-listed disorders and diseases. The clinical diagnosis of HIT is challenging, and the thorough anamnesis of all HIT-linked complaints, using a standardized questionnaire, is the mainstay of HIT diagnosis. So far, DAO values in serum have not been established to correlate with DAO activity in the gut, but the diagnosis of HIT may be supported with determination of a low serum DAO value. A targeted dietary intervention, consisting of a histamine-reduced diet and/or supplementation with oral DAO capsules, is helpful to reduce HIT-related symptoms. This manuscript will present why histamine should also be taken into account in the differential diagnoses of patients with various diseases and disorders of unknown origin, but with association to functional gastrointestinal complaints. In this review, we discuss currently increasing evidence that HIT is primarily a gastrointestinal disorder and that it originates in the gut.